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Cabarete (Dominican Republic)

Cabarete is a village on the North coast of the Dominican Republic. It was founded in 1835 by Zephaniah Kingsley and his mixed-race family (he practiced polygamy and married four black women), and 53 slaves he freed from his Florida plantations.

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In 1984, a Canadian wind surfer discovered Cabarete as an exceptional hot spot for wind surfing. Subsequently, the outstanding surf conditions of the bay of the until that unimportant fishing village was promoted in surfer magazines in Canada and the USA, and today, Cabarete is one of the most popular surfer beaches in the world for kitesurfing and windsurfing.

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Louise Lecavalier – Ikon of contemporary dance

Impressing and outstanding. Different and unique. Particular and herself. These are some words that come in my mind when I think of Louise Lecavalier who I was honored to see dancing on Friday night in the European Center of Arts Dresden „Hellerau“. How can a person have so much energy, express her story by an incomparable sharing dance and amaze me so much, that I was not able to close my mouth during her 65 minutes of dance?

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How did she do that? No, she did not change her clothes all 10 minutes from rocker to sexy to colorful. She didn’t use props or songs that everybody knows. No. What she did was dancing her own choreography with a story that was easy to understand only when you are able to forget everything you know from show dance where music, costumes and smiling or sad faces reveal very clearly the story. Forget about all that and watch her dancing. Look at the scene: a square dance flooring which spends very clear borders which are crossed by the dancers from time to time with no caution and no hurry, just very naturally. And then you see the high wall at the and of the square flooring. But Battleground doesn’t care about walls. The two dancers use it as a very normal part of the stage and roll themselves over the floor using the wall as a welcome and simple part during their move.

Dance Company : Fou Glorieux Title english : BATTLEGROUND Titre français: Mille Batailles Choreographer : Louise Lcavalier Dancers: Louise Lecavalier & Rob AbuboPhoto: André Cornellier

Dance Company : Fou Glorieux Title english : BATTLEGROUND Titre français: Mille Batailles Choreographer : Louise Lcavalier Dancers: Louise Lecavalier & Rob AbuboPhoto: André Cornellier

What I liked very much was the simple clothes of the three artists: the dancers Louise Lecavalier and Robert Abubo and the live DJ Antoine Berthiaume wore black. That helps to focus on the choreography, the incredible and fantastic light design show by Alain Lortie and great beat of the contemporary electronic live music – I should mention that Lecavalier’s dance company Fou glorieux (glorious madman) comes from Montreal – a capital for contemporary and nonstandard music. Montreal is a colorful, wild and open city with a very innovating art scene – and it is hometown and home of Louise Lecavalier.

Battleground_MilleBatailles_Katja Illner_1Photo: Katja Illner

Who is Louise Lecavalier? What should surprise everybody who saw her dancing is the fact that she was born in 1958. She grew up in Montreal in the Canadian Province Quebec. At the age of 15, she decided to become a dancer and became three years later part of the company Groupe Nouvelle Aire where she met the choreographer Édouard Lock. In 1981, they founded La La La Human Steps, travelled around the world with this dance company and became very popular. In 1990, Lecavalier played the leading female part in David Bowie’s music video Fame. In 2010, she was awarded the Order of Canada. Her first dance choreography So blue premiered in 2012 in Düsseldorf (Germany).  Battleground premiered this month in the same city and was inspired by Italo Calvino’s Il cavaliere inesistente (1959; The Nonexisting Knight). She still lives with her family in Montreal. As Montréalaise, she speaks French and English, but has also very good other language skills as for example in German.

Battleground_Mille_Batailles_Katja_Illner_5Photo: Katja Illner

Dance Company : Fou Glorieux Title english : BATTLEGROUND Titre français: Mille Batailles Choreographer : Louise Lcavalier Dancers: Louise Lecavalier & Rob AbuboPhoto: André Cornellier

Photo: André CornellierPhoto: André Cornellier

I was impressed by the dance style that was a bit provocative, but choreographed also with a lot of love for detail. The relationship between the two dancers is not comparable to anything else I have already seen: there was no forced romantic, no touches all along. They were a great team and developed romance in the respectful behavior towards each other. In the first quarter or third of the dance, Louise Lecavalier danced by herself. Then, Robert Abubo walked on her side in the square dance floor. Moves she had danced alone in the first part were later repeated together in a slightly amended version – it was wonderful to see that. One of my favorite parts was the farewell scene in the last five minutes which was still part of the dance; the dancers danced modified bows and imitated the coming backs on the stage – bowing – leaving – coming back – bowing etc. tradition – what I liked is that they did not dance it in a satirical comedian, but rather in a reflecting and unemotional way. I recommend everybody to watch a Louise Lecavalier choreography. It inspires you to break up with ordinariness.

Dance Company : Fou Glorieux Title english : BATTLEGROUND Titre français: Mille Batailles Choreographer : Louise Lcavalier Dancers: Louise Lecavalier & Rob AbuboPhoto: André Cornellier

Many thanks to the Government Representative Office of Québec and the European Center of Arts Dresden „Hellerau“ for the invitation to that wonderful evening with the artists Louise Lecavalier, Robert Abubo and Antoine Berthiaume.

(Titelfoto: Louise Lecavalier | ©André Cornellier)

Portugal: Belém Tower

When I think of my favorite city Lisbon (Portuguese: Lisboa), I see a bright and promising blue. It’s like Lisbon held a patent on this color. You see this it when you get out of the plane and no matter where you are in Lisbon – the sky color is always above you.  The same blue is mirrored in the water of the large Tagus river (Port: Tejo) and its mouth to the Atlantic Ocean that you can see from all viewpoints of the Portuguese capital. But the place where you are surrounded by this intensive and light blue is the Torre de Belém (Belém Tower).

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The tower is located in Belém, a civil parish of the municipality of Lisbon. Along with the nearby Mosteiro dos Jerónimos (Jerónimos Monastery) it is a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1983. Both buildings are two of the very few prominent examples of the Manueline style that have survived the catastrophic 1755 Lisbon earthquake.

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In the late 15th century, the fortresses of Cascais (Cascais is known today as Portugal’s Hollywood) played the main role in the defense system for the mouth of the Tagus. These fortresses did not completely protect the river’s mouth, so King Manuel I of Portugal commissioned the building of the Belém Tower. The constructions started in 1515 and were finalized in 1521, King Manuel’s year of death. Since this time, the Torre de Belém symbolizes the high period of the Portuguese Sea and Trade Empire.

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The tower was built as a lighthouse on an island in the mouth of the Tagus river to the Atlantic Ocean. It welcomed the arriving explorers and merchant vessels. It is written in different historical travel journeys that Portuguese explorers and merchants always were very pleased to see the Belém Tower after weeks or months of absence, because the tower emblematized the return to their home country and their families.

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The Torre de Belém was built from a beige-white limestone local to the Lisbon area and thereabouts called lioz. The building is divided into two parts: the bastion and the four story tower located on the north side of the bastion. The Portuguese Late Gothic Manueline style is especially apparent in the elaborate rib vaulting, crosses of the Order of Christ, armillary spheres and twisted rope, common to the nautically-inspired organic Manueline style.

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There has originally been a twin tower on the other side of the river mouth to take enemy ships in the crossfire, but it was destroyed during the earthquake of 1755.

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The dark interior of the tower was used as prison and arsenal in the 19th century. Today, the highest floor (35 m / 115 ft high) of the tower is a viewpoint. In the west you can see the red bridge Ponte 25 de Abril (the world’s second largest suspension bridge after the Tsing Ma Bridge in Hong Kong) and the Tagus coming from Lisbon, and on the east side you look to the horizon of the Atlantic Ocean. On sunny days, many sailboats sail in the river mouth what is very beautiful.

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Carnival tradition in Germany

Today is Rose Monday, one of the most important Carnival days. The best known Carnival cities are Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Venice (Italy) and Cologne (Germany). The important center of German Carnival is the Rhineland. But also in many other German regions the time before the Christian six-week Lent is celebrated very cheerfully.

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Where does this tradition come from? Some people connect the carnival with ancient Mesopotamian, Greek, Egyptian, Roman, Celtic or Germanic feasts. But these were festive days to celebrate gods or the awakening of the nature in spring. What is similar are colorful parades (Rome), showers of roses (Rome), masks (Celts) and the principle of equality (Mesopotamia and Rome). But most researcher doubt in these ancient celebrations being the origin of the Christian carnival. More likely seems the start of it during the emergence of the Christian Lent. Pope Gregory the Great (590–604) decided that fasting would start on Ash Wednesday. The whole carnival event was set before the fasting and there was also the custom that the ruling class would be mocked using masks and disguises. The word „Carnival“ may be composed by the Latin word „carne“ (meat) and „levare“ or „vale“ (good bye).

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The worldwide tradition is more common in areas with a large Roman Catholic presence. Carnival typically involves a parade combining some elements of a circus, masks and public street party. People wear masks during many such celebrations, an overturning of life’s normal things. There are different carnival cries in Germany. The most popular one is probably „Hellau“ – its origin is unknown.

By Sebastian Koppehel (Own work) [CC BY 4.0 (http-:creativecommons.org:licenses:by:4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

In many German regions, the Carnival season starts on 11/11 at 11:11 a.m. This dates back to celebrations before the Advent season or with harvest celebrations of St. Martin’s Day.  I remember that date because at primary school in my home village Röderau, we always started a cross-country running at exactly this time. It was obligatory, but at the end of the course each runner got a Berliner Pfannkuchen (similar to a doughnut with no central hole but, with a jam filling) made by the world’s best village bakery 😉 This bakery always made one Pfannkuchen with mustard instead of jam and everybody was half scared (because it was disgusting) and half excited (because it meant luck for one year) who would get the mustard Pfannkuchen.

[[File-Karnevalswagen Kardinal Meisner 2005.jpg|thumb|Karnevalswagen Kardinal Meisner 2005]]

The most active Carnival week begins on the Thursday before Ash Wednesday, with parades during the weekend, and finishes at midnight before Ash Wednesday, with the main festivities occurring around Rose Monday (Rosenmontag). This time is also called the „Fifth Season“. The parades are marked by  floats, walking bands, dancing formations, costumes, masks and showers of sweets and confetti. The floats demonstrate often in a satirical way famous persons and events of the last year.

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The „Funkengarde“ plays an important role. It’s a guard of young men wearing uniforms  in eye-catching colors (to be understood as a persiflage). Besides there are dancing female guards of so called „Funkenmariechen“ (Funken Marys). Their typical outfits are composed of tricorn, a short dress in the guard’s or club’s colors, and boots. Guard dance is a special dance style characterized by march dance, ballet elements, varying pictures (diagonals, semicircles, Vs, etc.) and acrobatic (split, cartwheel, etc.). Very important is synchronism and precision.

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I come from a protestant German region. Luther’s Reformation put into question the Lent before Eastern. That is why customs related to the Lent – like Carnival – became more and more unimportant in these regions. There were a few Carnival celebrations, but it was smaller and shorter than in Roman Catholic areas. Nevertheless, the TV is broadcasting many many Carnival shows especially from the Rhineland, so the excitement for it grows in the protestant regions, too. I’m sure Carnival will grow in the next 10 years as did Halloween in Germany in the past. And therefore I conclude my post with a threefold Hellau – Hellau – Hellau!

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Most pictures: Peter Eichardt | Ascherslebener Carnevalsclub

By Leonard Bentley from Iden, East Sussex, UK (Iden) [CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Atmosfair – website for CO₂ offset

Most people travel far to meet other peoples, to immerge into (by them) unknown cultures. Germans are known to be the world’s most frequently travelers, but also many other nations travel a lot and like to see other countries; and most often, we use the plane – with a guilty conscience, because we know about the ecological footprint we leave. We know, we could stay at home because our country has a lot to offer, too, but sometimes we need to get out and see a completely different culture.

What should we know about our trips? Two bathtubs full of kerosine are burnt per passager on a flight from Frankfurt (Germany) to Los Angeles (USA). 10 % of the climate warming caused by humans come from the air traffic. Air traffic is the only human activity that has a direct influence on cloud formations in the upper troposphere. How can we counteract this development when not flying is no option? One answer is the German organisation atmosfair that was founded in 2005. Their guideline says: avoid – reduce – offset. It is a climate protection organisation and specialized on offsetting travels. True to their guiding principle „first avoid – then reduce – and only then offset“, they support innovative projects for alternative products with the goal to avoid and reduce carbon. Besides, they give very interesting information like tips for climate-friendly travel or an overview about the world’s cleanest airlines.

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How does it work? On the website of atmosfair you can calculate your flight’s, cruise’s and event’s CO₂ footprint and offset it with a voluntary contribution to the protection of the climate. With the money you will support atmosfair-projects which save this amount of greenhouse gases – it is projects about renewable energy and energy efficiency projects in developing countries. 90 % of atmosfair’s carbon offset projects adhere to the CDM Gold Standard by the United Nations, the strictest standard available for climate protection projects. There are projects for energy-efficient cookstoves, wind power, biogas from cow dung, solar water heaters and much more. You can find a project overview here.

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A flight from Berlin to London (round-trip) for example causes an emission of 526 kg of CO₂. Just to compare this number: a refrigerator causes 100 kg CO₂ per year. A flight from Paris to Chicago (round-trip) causes 3,558 kg of CO₂; a car that is used for 35 km per day causes 2,000 kg of CO₂ per year. In order to offset your emission, the website calculates the amount you should donate to an environmental project if you want to offset you emission. For a Berlin-London-round-trip it would be 13 Euro, Paris-Chicago would be 82 Euro. Even though avoiding CO₂ is always the better choice, atmosfair gives us a great opportunity to contribute to our planet when we take a plane despite our bad conscience. Greenpeace, a donator for atmosfair, assesses atmosfair as reputable and says that this organisation would be the only recommendable provider for offsetting travels.

Regenwald Goldmine

As it is often mentioned, offsetting carbon is not a solution for justifying all our travels. Short distances are often very good to reach by train. Or did you ever visit the different cultures around  you? Germans, have you ever been on a feast of the Sorbs? US-Americans and Canadians, have you ever attended a pow-wow? Finns and Swedes, have you ever sit on a fire with a Lapp? Russians, have you ever listened to a lament song sang by a Nenet woman? There is such a rich cultural diversity just on our doorsteps.

atmosfair website: https://www.atmosfair.de/en/home

Mangrove forests

The ecosystem Mangrove is originated by salt tolerant types of trees up to medium height and by shrubs that grow in saline coastal sediment habitats in the tropics and subtropics with a water temperature of about 68°F (20°C). The mangrove forest areas of the world in 2005 was about 58,000 mi² (150,000 km²) spanning 118 countries and territories. Approximately 75% of world’s mangroves are found in just 15 countries. Asia has the largest amount (42%) of the world’s mangroves, followed by Africa (21%), North/Central America (15%), Oceania (12%) and South America (11%). All the pictures you can see in this post were taken on the North coast of the Dominican Republic.

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Mangroves are adapted to live in harsh coastal conditions. They contain a complex salt filtration system and complex root system to cope with salt water immersion and wave action. They are adapted to the low oxygen conditions of waterlogged mud.

The term „mangrove“ came from Portuguese through Spanish to English and is likely to originate from the Amerindian language Guaraní. It was earlier „mangrow“ (from Portuguese mangue), but this word was corrupted via folk etymology influence of the word „grove“.

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Why do I write about mangroves in a blog that is about culture? Because humans depend on mangrove forests and the culture of the people in regions where these forests are native is influenced by this ecosystem. Magrove forests are endangered by shrimp farming (especially in Asia, but also in Latin America), by oil pollution (Panama, Persian Gulf, Niger delta) and by draining of mangrove areas for housing development on the coasts.

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Protecting the mangrove ecosystem is not only necessary regarding the climate change. There are much more reasons to preserve it. Mangrove swamps protect coastal areas from erosion, storm surge (especially during hurricanes) and tsunamis. Also, the unique ecosystem found in the intricate mesh of mangrove roots offers a quiet marine region for young organisms. In areas where roots are permanently submerged, the organisms they host include algae, barnacles, oysters, sponges and bryozoans, which all require a hard surface for anchoring while they filter feed. Shrimps and mud lobsters use the muddy bottoms as their home. Mangrove crabs munch on the mangrove leaves, adding nutritients to the mangal muds for other bottom feeders. And what about the people who live on mangrove forest coasts? They use the wood as firewood and for charcoal or tanning agents making. It is also proved that coast fishing decreased dramatically where mangroves were deforested extensively. All that shows that deforesting destroys the traditional way of life of many local people.

Efforts to restore the mangroves are made for example in Vietnam, Thailand, India, Sri Lanka and the Philippines. Despite these efforts the destruction of mangroves continues in many regions.

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Munich – New Town Hall and Maypole

Munich (German: München) is the capital of the German region Bavaria (Bayern). With 1,5 million inhabitants, Munich is the 3rd biggest city of Germany (after Berlin and Hamburg). Munich is known especially for its famous Oktoberfest. Two other emblems are the New Town Hall and the Maypole at the Viktualienmarkt.

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The New Town Hall of Munich is domicile of the municipality of the city since 1874. Georg von Hauberrisser built it from 1867 to 1908 in a Gothic Revival architecture style. The main facade is richly decorated with frescos of saints and folklike figures. The main tower has a height of 85 m and is available for visitors with an elevator. On the top thrones the Münchner Kindl, Munich’s emblem. The carillon of the tower is the fifth-largest in Europe. An apparatus can perform 4 different melodies with 43 bells.

May Pole Munich

The Maypole is the center of the Viktualienmarkt, a permanent grocery market in the Old Town of Munich. The origin of erecting a maypole (Maibaum) mostly on May 1 is a tradition in some Germanophone regions and goes back to the 16th century. In Bavaria, the pole is usually painted in the Bavarian colours of white and blue and decorated with emblems depicting local crafts and industry. The maypole of the Viktualienmarkt is sponsored by the Association of Munich’s Breweries.

 

German food tradition on New Year’s Eve

„What will your family eat on Christmas?“ is an often asked question in decembers. But what do people eat on New Year’s Eve? My family would answer the same as many other Germans, too: carp.

The tradition of eating carp on Christmas or New Year’s Eve is very common in many parts of Germany as same as in Bohemia (Czech Republic) and Austria. But why having carp on New Year’s Eve? The answer is simple: the popular belief is that a carp scale or a chondral-like part of the fishbone would bring luck and money in the new year when you put it in your wallet.

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Carp breeding is very common in Germany, Poland, Bohemia, Austria, Slovenia, Croatia,  Hungary and many Asian regions. In Germany, we buy the carp directly from the breeder. When the carp was bred in a muddy lake like in the lake of Moritzburg Castle, people keep the carp alive for a couple of days before slaughtering it. They put the living carp in a tub with fresh and clean water, so the carp cleans its gills from mud and other substances that would make the fish tasting earthy and strawy. These days of waiting give kids the opportunity to observe and fondle the fish… When you buy carp from clean lakes, like a gravel pit, it can be slaughtered directly by the breeder.

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There are different ways of preparing carp. My family puts the whole fish with vegetables in the oven. It’s delicious.

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